手机大顺新闻网 娱乐新闻>top

拒绝美援助,刚刚,中国出手大快人心!!

2020-03-30 来源:top  阅读:12次

来源:军武策 作者:军武说策



美国职业篮球联赛(National Basketball Association),简称NBA,是由北美三十支队伍组成的男子职业篮球联盟,汇集了世界上最顶级的球员, [1] 是世界水平最高篮球赛事。 [1] 是美国四大职业体育联盟之一。 [1] 其中诞生了如:迈克尔?乔丹、比尔?拉塞尔、科比?布莱恩特、卡里姆?阿卜杜?贾巴尔、威尔特?张伯伦、埃尔文?约翰逊、拉里?伯德、奥斯卡?罗伯特森、约翰?哈弗利切克、里克?巴里、约翰?斯托克顿、卡尔?马龙、埃尔金?贝勒、大卫?罗宾逊、朱利叶斯?欧文、查尔斯-巴克利等传奇球星。 NBA一共有30支球队分为东部联盟和西部联盟,每个联盟又被划分为3个赛区,各赛区由5支球队组成。 [1] 每个赛季结束后下赛季开始前,会举行NBA选秀,选秀后有各球队新秀夏季联赛,常规赛,季前赛通常在十月份打响。(季前赛包含NBA海外赛和NBA中国赛)其中在2月份有一项特殊的表演赛事NBA全明星赛,常规赛结束后,东部和西部联盟分别由前八名进入季后赛,决出东西部冠军,晋级NBA总决赛。NBA总决赛表现最优秀球员获总决赛最有价值球员(FMVP)荣誉。中文名称美国职业篮球联赛英文名称 National Basketball Association举办时间 每年10月份季前赛,常规赛,4月份季后赛,6月份总决赛举办地点美国,加拿大,中国赛事类型篮球主办机构BAA图集词条视频目录1 发展历史2 联赛球队▪ 现存▪ 已解散▪ 队名变迁▪ 吉祥物3 竞赛规程竞赛方法▪ 排名方法▪ 竞赛规则参赛▪ 暂停 违例犯规中文名称美国职业篮球联赛 英文名称 National Basketball Association 举办时间 每年10月份季前赛,常规赛,4月份季后赛,6月份总决赛 举办地点美国,加拿大,中国 赛事类型篮球 主办机构BAA 成立时间 1946年6月6日 现任总裁亚当?席尔瓦 球队数量 30支 比赛形式夏季联赛.季前赛.常规赛.季后赛 比赛时长 总共四节每节12分钟加时赛5分钟 中国电视转播cctv5,劲爆体育,广东体育 美国电视转播ABC电视台,ESPN,TNT和NBATV等 [1] 网络转播腾讯体育,企鹅直播,百视通 著名活动NBA选秀.NBA全明星赛.NBA中国赛 著名球员乔丹,科比,詹姆斯,库里,欧文等 著名球队凯尔特人,公牛,湖人,勇士等发展历史编辑成立初期美职篮于1946年6月6日在纽约成立,莫里斯-波多洛夫 早年美职篮宣传图早年美职篮宣传图他的名字被印在联盟MVP奖杯上。联盟成立之初只有十一支球队 [1] ,其中只有3支球队一直延续至今,他们分别是勇士、尼克斯和凯尔特人,其余8支球队都在5年内先后解散 [2] 。1946年6月6日,NBA的前身BAA在美国成立,这一切缘起于十一家冰球馆与体育馆的老板不希望在没有相关比赛的时候闲置自己的场馆,出于这个目的,美国篮球联盟就应运而生了 [3] 。当时的11支球队虽然也是分为东西部(东部6支,西部5支),但东西部各自只有3支球队晋级季后赛。季后赛的赛制也非常怪异,若按常理,最好的球队能在最后碰面,可是BAA的管理层却把东部第一的华盛顿国会与西部第一的芝加哥牡鹿直接分在了一起,打7战4胜制的比赛,另外4支球队,先是进行一轮3局2胜的淘汰赛,东部第二的球队首轮对阵西部第二的球队,东部第三的球队首轮对阵西部第三的球队 [2] 。在史前篮球时代,人们普遍认为小个子比大个子更适合打篮球。但是在当时以乔治?麦肯为代表的大个子们的出现,有力地打击了人们的质疑,麦肯的到来意味良多:NBA的球员高大化、NBL的消亡,以及联盟首个王朝(明尼亚波利斯湖人)的出现 [4] 。1950-51赛季,“糖水”奈特-克里夫顿成为第一个和NBA签约的黑人球员,该赛季,克里夫顿场均贡献8分6个篮板 [5] 。 1957-1966是NBA开始进入迅速发展的新时期,在这十年中,出现了波士顿凯尔特人、圣路易斯老鹰和明尼阿波利斯湖人“三足鼎立”的局面,在度过十年(1947-1956)的成长阵痛期之后,NBA在当时已经获得了比较广泛的关注。而在这十年(1957-1966),波士顿凯尔特人史无前例地在这十年之中全部进入了总决赛,并拿下了其中的九个总冠军,在这九个总冠军里,还包括一个八连冠(1959-1966)。 [3] NBA开始逐步向多元化发展,在这十年里,共有九支不同的球队曾站在过总决赛的赛场上,虽然波士顿凯尔特人和洛杉矶湖人在这一时期依旧是最闪耀的主角,但是这种均势已经在很大程度上被打破。而且诸如76人、雄鹿、勇士、老鹰等这些历史比较悠久的球队也都是在这个时期里分别落户在现在所在的主场城市的。 [3] 1977-1981NBA继史前时期拉塞尔与张伯伦的博弈之后又迎来了新一轮的双煞对决,他们两个一个叫埃尔文-约翰逊,一个叫拉里-伯德。他们两个在上世纪八十年代率领各自的球队为我们奉献了一次又一次堪称经典的巅峰对决。 NBA历史上最伟大的球员——“篮球之神”迈克尔?乔丹在这一时期横空出世,他的出现打乱了联盟之间的在他光辉的职业生涯背后,隐藏的也是大批伟大球员的悲惨结局。 [3] 1987-1989在1987到1989年这段时间里,随着迈克尔?乔丹的不断成熟,他所率领的芝加哥公牛队在这期间的成绩也变得越来越好。从1987年的分区首轮,到1988年的分区次轮,再到1989年的分区决赛,芝加哥人一直都在迈克尔-乔丹的带领之下有条不紊地每年保持进步。不过在当时,“坏小子军团”才是联盟的主角。 [3] 1990-1993在1990-91赛季开始前,迈尔尔-乔丹连续四年蝉联得分王,他的个人成就已经使他跻身于NBA最受欢迎的巨星行列,1991年4月,乔丹夺取了他的连续第5个得分王,而本届总决赛的胜利也终于把那些置疑他的声音一扫而空 [6] 。在1991-1993这三年间,芝加哥公牛队在迈克尔?乔丹的带领下先后击败了湖人、开拓者与太阳豪取三连冠。 [3] 乔丹黯然短暂退出了篮球界,而失去了他的芝加哥公牛在此期间也一蹶不振,此时的主角一直都是“大梦”奥拉朱旺所率领的休斯顿火箭。 [3] 1996-1998年间,重新迎回迈克尔-乔丹的芝加哥公牛在他的带领下夺下了队史的最后一个三连冠,而此时的公牛也已经达到了队史的顶峰,他们在当时创下了的单赛季72胜10负的傲人战绩,直到2015-2016赛季才被金州勇士队以73胜9负的战绩打破。1999年,乔丹已经再度退役,而此时在西区,圣安东尼奥马刺正在蒂姆-邓肯与大卫-罗宾逊的带领下悄然崛起。他们在这一年拿到了队史的首座 随着“OK组合”磨合的日益成熟,洛杉矶湖人也在21世纪伊始迅速崛起,他们在2000-2002年间先后击败了步行者、76人和篮网,拿下了三连冠。 [3] 在2003-2005年间,活塞与马刺成为了联盟中的主角,他们在这三年之中瓜分了所有的总冠军,而在2005年,他们也展开了直接对话。当然,2003年的选秀 在2006-2007年间,有科比疯狂嗜血的得分表演,也有韦德独闯龙潭的耀人瞬间,而这些都已经成为了我们脑海中弥足珍贵的一部分。 [3] 在2008年,凯尔特人组了三巨头,基德与奥尼尔等老将也先后更换了自己的新东家,不过当年对于球迷而言最激动人心的应该就是在总决赛上湖人与凯尔特人之间展开的黄绿大战了。 [3] 2009-2010年,科比与加索尔带领湖人先后战胜了魔术与凯尔特人夺得两连冠。而2010年也成为了詹姆斯在克利夫兰骑士的最后一年。 [3] 2012年是一个缩水赛季,起因是联盟与球员工会方面就薪资问题在赛季开始之前一直很难达成一致,在这个缩水赛季里,迈阿密热火成为了最后的赢家,他们在总决赛中击败了雷霆,拿到了队史的第二座总冠军奖杯,勒布朗终于在这一年圆了自己的冠军梦。 [3] 2013年,湖人组成了F4,哈登去了休斯顿,热火取得了27连胜并拿到了两连冠,这一年发生的大喜事确实有太多太多,不过当然,最大的赢家依旧是迈阿密热火,因为他们夺得了总冠军。 2014年,超人空降休斯顿,科比与罗斯也再度报销,篮网组成五巨头却孰料竹篮打水一场空。这一年真的有太多太多的悲喜剧交相上演,唯一恒久不变的只有老而弥坚的马刺,他们在这一年再度凭借高人一等的实力捧得了桂冠。 [3] 2015年,勇士成功打破了篮球哲学,他们以一波小快灵的亮眼打法震惊了全世界,并让刚刚迎回勒布朗的克利夫兰骑士再度痛失总冠军。 [3] 2016年,日渐崛起金州勇士打破了由迈克尔乔丹率领的芝加哥公牛创造的72胜10负的战绩;取得了73胜9负的傲人战绩,但是在总决赛的舞台上却被由勒布朗詹姆斯带领的克里夫兰骑士队完成总决赛史上第一次1:3落后翻盘。无缘总冠军,也成为了NBA历史上最大的一块背景板,同年也是克利夫兰这座城市的体育史上第一座奖杯1904年5月21日,国际足联的第一任主席法国人罗贝尔?盖兰,第一次向各国足坛领导人提出了这种想法,并责成其秘书长荷兰人希尔施曼为此起草一份文件。但由于表示愿意参加的国家不多,而且由于政治体育的不和,这项计划流产了。第一次世界大战结束后,巴黎红星队的创始人于勒?雷米特先生当选为国际足联主席,他又重新操起了这项搁浅的计划。他向各国足球界领导人作了大量的说服工作,竭力证明:一项世界性的足球比赛完全可以同顾拜旦男爵创立的奥运会比赛并行不悖,并且能够兴旺发达,他苦口婆心,耐心之至。1925年,在布鲁塞尔的一家饭店内,乌拉圭外交官布埃罗代表两届奥运会足球冠军得主乌拉圭队,正式对雷米特表示支持,这在当时起了不小的作用。1926年12月10日,国际足联在巴黎召开了一次工作会议,瑞士、匈牙利、法国、奥地利、德国等许多国家都派代表参加了这次会议。4个月后,会议的草案被提交给各国足协。1927年6月5日,在国际足联召开的赫尔辛基会议上,以23票赞成、5票反对(北欧国家表示反对)、1票弃权(德国)通过了巴黎工作会议议案。1926年,国际足联卢森堡会议上,把锦标赛的名称改为“雷米特杯赛”,以表彰前国际足联主席,法国人雷米特为足球事业所作出的巨大贡献。后来,有人建议把两个名字连在一起,称为“世界足球锦标赛——雷米特杯,最后在赫尔辛基的代表会议上,最终更名为“世界足球冠军杯——雷米特杯”,简称“世界杯”。每四年举办一届。世界杯是1928年FIFA为获胜者特制的奖品,是由巴黎著名首饰技师弗列尔铸造的。其模特是希腊传说中的胜利女神尼凯,她身着古罗马束腰长袍,双臂伸直,手中捧一只大杯。金杯高35厘米,重量3.8公斤,为银杯镀金铸成,立在大理石底座上。此杯为流动奖品,谁得了冠军,可把金杯保存4年,到下一届杯赛前交还给国际足联,以便颁发给新的世界冠军。此外有一个附加规定是:谁三次获得世界冠军,谁将永远得到此杯。雷米特杯与大力神杯雷米特杯与大力神杯970年第九届世界杯赛时,乌拉圭、意大利、巴西都已获得过两次冠军。因此都有永远占有此杯的机会,结果是巴西队捷足先得,占有了此杯。国际足联还得准备一个新奖杯,以发给下届冠军。1971年5月,国际足联举行新杯审议会,通过对53种方案评议后,决定采用意大利人加扎尼亚的设计方案——两个大力士双手举起地球的设计方案。这个造形象征着世界第一运动的规模。新的奖杯定名为“大力神杯”。该杯高36.8厘米,重6.175公斤,其中4.97公斤的主体由真正的纯金铸造。底座由两层孔雀石构成,珍贵无比。国际足联规定新杯为流动奖品,不论哪队获得多少冠军,也不能永久占有此杯。在大力神杯的底座下面有能容纳镌刻17个冠军队名字的铭牌——可以持续使用到2038年。大力神杯是现今足球世界杯的奖杯,是足球界的最高荣誉的象征。世界杯赛程分为预选赛阶段和决赛阶段两个阶段世界杯预选赛阶段分为六大赛区进行,分别是欧洲、南美洲、亚洲、非洲、北美洲和大洋洲赛区,每个赛区需要按照本赛区的实际情况制订预选赛规则,而各个已报名参加世界杯的国际足联(FIFA)会员国(地区)代表队,则需要在所在赛区进行预选赛,争夺进入世界杯决赛阶段的名额。以直接获得决赛阶段名额,除主办国外,其他名额由国际足联根据各个预选赛赛区的足球水平进行分配,不同的预选赛赛区会有不同数量的决赛阶段名额。从1938年第三届世界杯开始,规定卫冕冠军和东道主可以直接晋级,但是2002年因为卫冕冠军法国在韩日世界杯表现太差,所以国际足联规定,从2006年世界杯预选赛起,卫冕冠军需要参加其所属区域内的世界杯预选赛,从而只有东道主可以入围决赛圈的比赛,南非世界杯东道主未能从小组出线,但是国际足联并未取消东道主直接晋级的资格。世界杯决赛阶段的主办国必须是国际足联(FIFA)会员国(地区),而且会员国(地区)需要向国际足联提出申请(可以两个会员联合申请承办),然后通过全体国际足联(FIFA)会员国(地区)投票选出

就在刚刚,



169. Dont let yesterday use up too much of today. 别留念昨天了,把握好今天吧。(Will Rogers) 170. If you are not brave enough, no one will back you up. 你不勇敢,没人替你坚强。 171. If you dont build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你没有梦想,那么你只能为别人的梦想打工。 172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你给自己机会,你会发现你的世界可以很美丽。 173. The difference in winning and losing is most often...not quitting. 赢与输的差别通常是--不放弃。(华特?迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我独一无二。 175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. 我喜欢那些让我笑起来的人,就算是我不想笑的时候。 176. Image a new story for your life and start living it. 为你的生命想一个全新剧本,并去倾情出演吧! 177. Id rather be a happy fool than a sad sage. 做个悲伤的智者,不如做个开心的傻子。 178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. 未来属于那些相信梦想之美的人。(埃莉诺?罗斯福) 179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and appreciate your own efforts. 即使没有人为你鼓掌,也要优雅的谢幕,感谢自己的认真付出。 180. Dont let dream just be your dream. 别让梦想只停留在梦里。 181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。 183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。 185. A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. 今天的好计划胜过明天的完美计划。 186. Nothing is impossible, the word itself says Im possible! 一切皆有可能!“不可能”的意思是:“不,可能。”(奥黛丽?赫本) 187. Life isnt fair, but no matter your circumstances, you have to give it your all. 生活是不公平的,不管你的境遇如何,你只能全力以赴。 188. No matter how hard it is, just keep going because you only fail when you give up. 无论多么艰难,都要继续前进,因为只有你放弃的那一刻,你才输了。 When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn’t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later. Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior. After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn’t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman. Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life. Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a “repo man,” picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn’t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process. There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child. Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter’s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah “John” Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria. Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mothe凝固的熔岩流。火星上常常有猛烈的大风,大风扬起沙尘能形成可以覆盖火星全球的特大型沙尘暴。每次沙尘暴可持续数个星期。火星两极的冰冠和火星大气中含有水份。从火星表面获得的探测数据证明,在远古时期,火星曾经有过液态的水,而且水量特别大。 [51] 土星是离太阳第六颗行星,直径120536㎞,体积仅次于木星。主要由氢组成,还有少量的氦与微量元素,内部的核心包括岩石和冰,外围由数层金属氢和气体包裹着。地球距离土星13亿公里。土星的引力比地球强2.5倍,能够牵引太阳系内其它行星,使地球处于一个椭圆轨道中运行,并且与太阳保持适当距离,适宜生命繁衍。当土星轨道倾斜20度将使地球轨道比金星轨道更接近太阳,同时,这将导致火星完全离开太阳系。 [52]  土星是已知唯一密度小于水的行星,假如能够将土星放入一个巨大的浴池之中,它将可以漂浮起来。土星有一个巨大的磁气圈和一个狂风肆虐的大气层,赤道附近的风速可达1800千米/时。在环绕土星运行的31颗卫星中间,土卫六是最大的一颗,比水星和月球还大,也是太阳系中唯一拥有浓厚大气层的卫星。 [53] 天王星是离太阳第七颗行星,51118km。体积约为地球的65倍,在九大行星中仅次于木星和土星。天王星的大气层中83%%u662F氢,15%%u4E3A氦,2%%u4E3A甲烷以及少量的乙炔和碳氢化合物。上层大气层的甲烷吸收红光,使天王星呈现蓝绿色。大气在固定纬度集结成云层,类似于木星和土星在纬线上鲜艳的条状色带。天王星云层的平均温度为零下193摄氏度。质量为8.6810?13?10?⁵kg,相当于地球质量的14.63倍。密度较小,只有1.24克/立方厘米,为海王星密度值的74.7%%u3002 [54] 恒星 恒星 海王星是离太阳的第八颗行星,直径49532千米。海王星绕太阳运转的轨道半径为45亿千米,公转一周需要165年。海王星的直径和天王星类似,质量比天王星略大一些。海王星和天王星的主要大气成分都是氢和氦,内部结构也极为相近,所以说海王星与天王星是一对孪生兄弟。 [55]  海王星有太阳系最强烈的风,测量到的时速高达2100公里。海王星云顶的温度是-218 ?C,是太阳系最冷的地区之一。海王星核心的温度约为7000 ?C,可以和太阳的表面比较。海王星在1846年9月23日被发现,是唯一利用数学预测而非有计划的观测发现的行星。 [56] 冥王星,位于海王星以外的柯伊伯带内侧,是柯伊伯带中已知的最大天体。 [57]  直径约为2370?20km,是地球直径的18.5%%u3002 [58]  2006年8月24日,国际天文学联合会大会24日投票决定,不再将传统九大行星之一的冥王星视为行星,而将其列入“矮行星”。大会通过的决议规定,“行星”指的是围绕太阳运转、自身引力足以克服其刚体力而使天体呈圆球状、能够清除其轨道附近其他物体的天体。在太阳系传统的“九大行星”中,只有水星、金星、地球、火星、木星、土星、天王星和海王星符合这些要求。冥王星由于其轨道与海王星的轨道相交,不符合新的行星定义,因此被自动降级为“矮行星”。 [59]  冥王星的表面温度大概在-238到-228℃之间。冥王星的成份由70%%u5CA9石和30%%u51B0水混合而成的。地表上光亮的部分可能覆盖着一些固体氮以及少量 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面 [60] 的固体甲烷和一氧化碳,冥王星表面的黑暗部分可能是一些基本的有机物质或是由宇宙射线引发的光化学反应。冥王星的大气层主要由氮和少量的一氧化碳及甲烷组成。大气极其稀薄,地面压强只有少量微帕。 [61] 地球是离太阳第三颗行星,是我们人类的家乡,尽管地球是太阳系中一颗普通的行星,但它在许多方面都是独一无二的。比如,它是太阳系中唯一一颗面积大部分被水覆盖的行星,也是目前所知唯一一颗有生命存在的星球。质量M=5.9742 ?10^24 公斤,表面温度:t = - 30 ~ 45。 [62]  英国科研人员在《天体生物学》杂志上报告说,如果没有小行星撞击等可能剧烈改变环境的事件发生,地球适宜人类居住的时间还剩约17.5亿年,不过人为造成的气候变化可能缩短这一时间。 [63] 彗星是由灰尘和冰块组成的太阳系中的一类小天体,绕日运动。 [64]  科学家使用探测器对彗星的化学遗留物进行分析,发现其主要成份为氨、甲烷、硫化氢、氰化氢和甲醛。科学家得出结论称,彗星的气味闻起来像是臭鸡蛋、马尿、酒精和苦杏仁的气味综合。 [65-66] “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 [67] 在太阳系的周围还包裹着一个庞大的“奥尔特云”。星云内分布着不计其数的冰块、雪团和碎石。其中的某些会受太阳引力影响飞入内太阳系,这学说,在原有的轨道(或称小天体轨道)上又增加了更多的天体运行轨道。这一模式称每颗行星都沿着一个小轨道作圆周运行,而小轨道又沿着该行星的大轨道绕地球作圆周运动。几百年之后,这一模式的漏洞越来越明显。科学家们又在这个模式上增加了许多轨道,行星就这样沿着一道又一道的轨道作圆周运动。 哥白尼想用“现代”(16世纪的)技术来改进托勒密的测量结果,以期取消一些小轨道。在长达近20年的时间里,哥白尼不辞辛劳日夜测量行星的位置,但其测量获得的结果仍然与托勒密的天体运行模式没有多少差别。 哥白尼想知道在另一个运行着的行星上观察这些行星的运行情况会是什么样的。基于这种设想,哥白尼萌发了一个念头:假如地球在运行中,那么这些行星的运行看上去会是什么情况呢?这一设想在他脑海里变得清晰起来了。一年里,哥白尼在不同的时间、不同的距离从地球上观察行星,每一个行星的情况都不相同,这是他意识到地球不可能位于星星轨道的中心。 经过20年的观测,哥白尼发现唯独太阳的周年变化不明显。这意味着地球和太阳的距离始终没有改变。如果地球不是宇宙的中心,那么宇宙的中心就是太阳。的发现才使牛顿有能力确定运动定律和万有引力定律。 哥白尼的日心宇宙体系既然是时代的产物,它就不能不受到时代的限制。反对神学的不彻底性,同时表现在哥白尼的某些观点上,他的体系是存在缺陷的。哥白尼所指的宇宙是局限在一个小的范围内的,具体来说,他的宇宙结构就是今天我们所熟知的太阳系,即以太阳为中心的天体系统。宇宙既然有它的中心,就必须有它的边界,哥白尼虽然否定了托勒玫的“九重天”,但他却保留了一层恒星天,尽管他回避了宇宙是否有限这个问题,但实际上他是相信恒星天球是宇宙的“外壳”,他仍然相信天体只能按照所谓完美的圆形轨道运动,所以哥白尼的宇宙体系,仍然包含着不动的中心天体。但是作为近代自然科学的奠基人,哥白尼的历史功绩是伟大的。确认地球不是宇宙的中心,而是行星之一,从而掀起了一场天文学上根本性的革命,是人类探求客观真理道路上的里程碑。 哥白尼的伟大成就,不仅铺平了通向近代天文学的道路,而且开创了整个自然界科学向前迈进的新时代。从哥白尼时代起,脱离教会束缚的自然科学和哲学开始获得飞跃的发展。哥白尼的科学成就,是他所处时代的产物,又转过来推动了时代的发展。 顺应时代变化 十五、六世纪的欧洲,正是从封建社会向资本主义社会转变的关键时期,在这一二百年间,社会发生了巨大的变化。14世纪ndali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their 别让梦想只停留在梦里。 181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。 183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。baby boy back. Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve’s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other. Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. “My parents were very open with me about that,” he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. “So does that mean your real parents didn’t want you?” the girl asked. “Lightning bolts went off in my head,” according to Jobs. “I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, ‘No, you have to understand.’ They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, ‘We specifically picked you out.’ Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.” Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. “I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,” said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. “He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.” Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. “Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,” he said. “It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.” Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs “full of broken glass,” and it helps to explain some of his behavior. “He who is abandoned is an abandoner,” she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. “The key question about Steve is why he can’t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,” he said. “That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve’s life.” Jobs dismissed this. “There’s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that’s ridiculous,” he insisted. “Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I’ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.” He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his “adoptive” parents or implied that they were not his “real” parents. “They were my parents 1,000%,%u201D he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: “They were my sperm and egg bank. That’s not harsh, it’s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.” Silicon Valley The childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south. There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. “Steve, this is your workbench now,” he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father’s focus on craftsmanship. “I thought my dad’s sense of design was pretty good,” he said, “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.” Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. “He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn’t see.” His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. “I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn’t interested in getting his hands dirty,” Paul later recalled. “He never really cared too much about m189. It requires hard work to give off an appearance of effortlessness. 你必须十分努力,才能看起来毫不费力。 190. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像骑单车,只有不断前进,才能保持平衡。(爱因斯坦) 191. Be thankful for what you have.Youll end up having more. 拥有一颗感恩的心,最终你会得到更多。 192. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一种内心的感觉,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亚?罗兰) 193. Friendship doubles your joys, and divides your sorrows. 朋友的作用,就是让你快乐加倍,痛苦减半。 194. When you long for something sincerely, the whole world will help you. 当你真心渴望某样东西时,整个宇宙都会来帮忙。echanical things.” “I wasn’t that into fixing cars,” Jobs admitted. “But I was eager to hang out with my dad.” Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. “He’s in the engine room, and he’s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.” Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics. “My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he’d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.” Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. “Every weekend, there’d be a junkyard trip. We’d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.” He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. “He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.” This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. “My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn’t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.” The Jobses’ house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision of simple modern homes for the American “everyman,” Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. “Eichler did a great thing,” Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. “His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.” Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. “I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.” Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. “He wasn’t that bright,” Jobs recalled, “but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, ‘I can do that.’ He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.” As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, “What is it you don’t understand about the universe?” Jobs replied, “I don’t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.” He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. “You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn’t good at that and it wasn’t in his nature. I admired him for that.” Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic. His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one exampl What made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne’er-do-wells tended to be engineers. “When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,” Jobs recalled. “But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.” He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. “The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,” he said. “I fell totally in love with it.” Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. “You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,” he recalled. “It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.” In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments. Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. “Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work. The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors. The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, tronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.” “No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.” “I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’” Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father’s competence and savvy. “He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn’t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.” Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents. “It was a very big moment that’s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.” This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world. Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. “Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.” So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality. School Even before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. “I was kind of bored for the first few years

美国一条新闻宣称:
中国拒绝了,
美国疾控中心专家对中国的帮助,
这让美国人深感失望。

这一消息传出后,
很多中国人不仅感到可笑,
更感到一丝丝的“别有用心”,
因为,我们从这句话中,
解读出的是某种“目的未达成”的失望。

美国为什么会“失望”?
中国又为什么,
要拒绝美国专家的“援助”?
这一切,
其实都和美国“援助”的真正目的有关。

我们先来看看,
中国疫情爆发到现在,
美国都做了些什么?

 01 
一张大嘴
空口白话

中国疫情爆发后,
很多国家都给中国提供了大量的援助,
截止到2月12日各国援助如下:

没错,
美国政府对中国的援助,
只有“一张大嘴”,
这是因为美国政府到现在,
没有给中国援助1分钱,
他们所谓的“捐助”其实都是空口白话。

不久之前,
美国官员曾大言不惭的说,
美国向中国人民运送了近17.8吨物资,
可实际上,这17.8吨物资,
只是美国方面“协助运送”到中国的,
也就是说,
这批物资并不是美国政府捐赠的,
而是他们帮忙运送的。

在这之后,
美国官方还曾“骄傲”的放出大话:
我们将给中国捐一亿美金,
支持中国抗击新冠病毒。
可真实情况是,
这1亿美元根本没有到账!

后来在多家媒体反复质疑下,
美方才改口说,
这1亿美元主要是,
用来预防和控制相关疫情,
阻止疫情威胁到美国和全球,
也就是说,
这笔钱其实是美国用来,
帮助他们自己国家免遭疫情影响的。

更让人感到意外的是
美国不仅没有给予中国任何帮助,
甚至还公开谎称,
中方拒绝美方的援助!

真实情况是,
美国根本没有为中国提供任何帮助,
甚至在中国疫情刚刚爆发的时候,
在世界卫生组织明确不建议,
其他国家对中国采取旅行与贸易限制之后,
美国就第一时间下令:
禁止华人入境!
他们甚至对外宣布,
将中国的入境旅行警告提升至最高级!
还试图强制要求美国公民,
“不要前往中国”!
不仅如此,美国还是第一个,
从武汉撤出领馆人员的国家。

 02 
媒体公开侮辱
官方落井下石

在这次疫情爆发之初,
美国主流媒体便一拥而上,
把新冠病毒命名为“中国病毒”,
将病毒与中国形象捆绑,
甚至挑拨全世界都“隔离”中国。

美国有官方媒体称,
这次疫情,
是中国在制造生物武器泄露导致的。


不仅仅如此,
美国政府还说中国试图控制全世界,
说中国在搞千人计划渗透美国……


在中国爆发疫情的国难关头,
美国官方还乘机“落井下石”。

1月28日,美国众议院通过涉藏法案,妄图干涉中国主权;

1月30日,美国商务部长罗斯在接受采访时幸灾乐祸声称,疫情爆发有利于经济回流美国;

1月31日,蓬佩奥访问英国继续施压阻扰华为参与英国5G建设;

2月13日,美国司法部宣布起诉华为与孟晚舟,剑指华为剑指中国高科技!

而就在昨天,美国更是做出了一系列落井下石的操作:

1、美国正在考虑禁止向中国出口用于C919国产大飞机发动机;

2、美国宣布取消中国“发展中国家优惠待遇”;

3、美国正策划切断华为芯片的全球供应链,尤其是台积电!

美国做出的这一些系列行为,
根本就是趁人之危。

更让人气愤的是,
美国《华尔街日报》不久前还发布了,
一篇报道中国疫情的文章,
文章用了一个极其恶毒标题,
“中国是真正的亚洲病夫了”
这个标题的恶毒程度,
连《华尔街日报》自己的工作人员,
都对该报会使用,
这么一个标题感到难以置信。


文章用极度傲慢和无知的口吻,
借新冠病毒的疫情指责中国,
甚至诅咒中国经济……

而外交部对此忍无可忍,
向《华尔街日报》提出严正交涉,要求道歉,
并直接吊销《华尔街日报》,
三名驻京记者的记者证,
以后我们的例会,你们不用来了!
此举真是大快人心!

 03 
美国此刻“援助”的真正目的
是什么?

而美国在做了上述这么多操作后,
现在却突然“变脸”,
希望派自己的医疗专家来帮助中国,
美国是要帮助中国抗击疫情吗?

并不是。

如果他们是真心帮助中国,
又怎么会在疫情进行到现在才帮助,
又怎么会在前期做了上述那么多事情?
他们的真正目的其实只有一个,
拿到中国本次防疫战争中,
最关键的数据与资料。

这次疫情爆发到现在,
中国实际上已经取得了阶段性胜利,
我们国家的疾控中心,
可是在1个月内就找到了病毒,
然后仅仅用了13天时间,
又分离出首株新型冠状病毒毒种。
这个效率绝对是世界顶尖水平,
这个过程中中国医疗专家采取了,
哪些手段与方法,
这才是美国专家想要知道的。

在治疗新冠病毒肺炎患者时,
中国采用了中西药结合的多种手段,
这些手段对后期新药与疫苗的研发,
都是非常宝贵的经验,
而这一切也都是美国觊觎的。

除此之外,
中国在短时间内就实现了全民隔离,
14亿人啊,
村村闭户,路路检查,
这一速度和效率震惊到了全世界,
美国现在也非常希望拿到中国,
应对本次疫情的全套模式与经验。

 04 
虚情假意的帮助,
中国不需要

 一般来说,中国每次遇大困难,

广大人民群众总会关注美国的动态,

可一直以来,
美国总是口号喊得最响,
实质性支援远不如其他国家。

2008年,
中国发生汶川大地震,
致使数十万人伤亡。
在北美地区,
仅加拿大一国就捐了近4亿人民币,
而美国只提供了50万美元援助,
当时约合人民币350万元。

现在,美国不仅一毛不拔,
还趁人之危落井下石,
眼看我们即将打赢这场疫情战争,
便迫不及待想派人过来,
“坐收渔翁之利”,
到底是何用心,
明眼人看得清清楚楚。

中国人向来不愿意,
用恶意去揣测别人,
但是像某些不怀好意的帮助,
我们也不得不防,
我们感谢每一份真情的帮助,
但我们也分得清谁是虚情假意,
我们对美国民间的热情相助表示感谢,
但也对美国官方的别有用心时刻提防!

今天,所有中国人
都在一起面对这场灾难,
中华民族,
终将一如往常一样战胜这场灾难,
也会一如往常一样,

让居心叵测的人明白我们的立场!

这才是祖国该有的霸气


无论您有多忙,请花1秒钟的时间把它放到你的圈子里!可能您的朋友就需要!谢谢!

论坛
  阅读原文
支持0次 | 反对0次  
  用户评论区,文明评论,做文明人!

通行证: *邮箱+888(如:123@qq.com888)

精彩推荐


申明:本站内容均来自网络,若有侵权请发至:2876218132#qq.com

校内论坛 @ www.xnbbs.net